Why societies collapse | Jared Diamond

Why societies collapse | Jared Diamond


I think all of us have been interested, at one time or another, in the romantic mysteries of all those societies that collapsed, such as the classic Maya in the Yucatan, the Easter Islanders, the Anasazi, Fertile Crescent society, Angor Wat, Great Zimbabwe and so on. And within the last decade or two, archaeologists have shown us that there were environmental problems underlying many of these past collapses. But there were also plenty of places in the world where societies have been developing for thousands of years without any sign of a major collapse, such as Japan, Java, Tonga and Tikopea. So evidently, societies in some areas are more fragile than in other areas. How can we understand what makes some societies more fragile than other societies? The problem is obviously relevant to our situation today, because today as well, there are some societies that have already collapsed, such as Somalia and Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia. There are also societies today that may be close to collapse, such as Nepal, Indonesia and Columbia. What about ourselves? What is there that we can learn from the past that would help us avoid declining or collapsing in the way that so many past societies have? Obviously the answer to this question is not going to be a single factor. If anyone tells you that there is a single-factor explanation for societal collapses, you know right away that they’re an idiot. This is a complex subject. But how can we make sense out of the complexities of this subject? In analyzing societal collapses, I’ve arrived at a five-point framework — a checklist of things that I go through to try and understand collapses. And I’ll illustrate that five-point framework by the extinction of the Greenland Norse society. This is a European society with literate records, so we know a good deal about the people and their motivation. In AD 984 Vikings went out to Greenland, settled Greenland, and around 1450 they died out — the society collapsed, and every one of them ended up dead. Why did they all end up dead? Well, in my five-point framework, the first item on the framework is to look for human impacts on the environment: people inadvertently destroying the resource base on which they depend. And in the case of the Viking Norse, the Vikings inadvertently caused soil erosion and deforestation, which was a particular problem for them because they required forests to make charcoal, to make iron. So they ended up an Iron Age European society, virtually unable to make their own iron. A second item on my checklist is climate change. Climate can get warmer or colder or dryer or wetter. In the case of the Vikings — in Greenland, the climate got colder in the late 1300s, and especially in the 1400s. But a cold climate isn’t necessarily fatal, because the Inuit — the Eskimos inhabiting Greenland at the same time — did better, rather than worse, with cold climates. So why didn’t the Greenland Norse as well? The third thing on my checklist is relations with neighboring friendly societies that may prop up a society. And if that friendly support is pulled away, that may make a society more likely to collapse. In the case of the Greenland Norse, they had trade with the mother country — Norway — and that trade dwindled: partly because Norway got weaker, partly because of sea ice between Greenland and Norway. The fourth item on my checklist is relations with hostile societies. In the case of Norse Greenland, the hostiles were the Inuit — the Eskimos sharing Greenland — with whom the Norse got off to bad relationships. And we know that the Inuit killed the Norse and, probably of greater importance, may have blocked access to the outer fjords, on which the Norse depended for seals at a critical time of the year. And then finally, the fifth item on my checklist is the political, economic, social and cultural factors in the society that make it more or less likely that the society will perceive and solve its environmental problems. In the case of the Greenland Norse, cultural factors that made it difficult for them to solve their problems were: their commitments to a Christian society investing heavily in cathedrals; their being a competitive-ranked chiefly society; and their scorn for the Inuit, from whom they refused to learn. So that’s how the five-part framework is relevant to the collapse and eventual extinction of the Greenland Norse. What about a society today? For the past five years, I’ve been taking my wife and kids to Southwestern Montana, where I worked as a teenager on the hay harvest. And Montana, at first sight, seems like the most pristine environment in the United States. But scratch the surface, and Montana suffers from serious problems. Going through the same checklist: human environmental impacts? Yes, acute in Montana. Toxic problems from mine waste have caused damage of billions of dollars. Problems from weeds, weed control, cost Montana nearly 200 million dollars a year. Montana has lost agricultural areas from salinization, problems of forest management, problems of forest fires. Second item on my checklist: climate change. Yes — the climate in Montana is getting warmer and drier, but Montana agriculture depends especially on irrigation from the snow pack, and as the snow is melting — for example, as the glaciers in Glacier National Park are disappearing — that’s bad news for Montana irrigation agriculture. Third thing on my checklist: relations with friendlies that can sustain the society. In Montana today, more than half of the income of Montana is not earned within Montana, but is derived from out of state: transfer payments from social security, investments and so on — which makes Montana vulnerable to the rest of the United States. Fourth: relations with hostiles. Montanans have the same problems as do all Americans, in being sensitive to problems created by hostiles overseas affecting our oil supplies, and terrorist attacks. And finally, last item on my checklist: question of how political, economic, social, cultural attitudes play into this. Montanans have long-held values, which today seem to be getting in the way of their solving their own problems. Long-held devotion to logging and to mines and to agriculture, and to no government regulation; values that worked well in the past, but they don’t seem to be working well today. So, I’m looking at these issues of collapses for a lot of past societies and for many present societies. Are there any general conclusions that arise? In a way, just like Tolstoy’s statement about every unhappy marriage being different, every collapsed or endangered society is different — they all have different details. But nevertheless, there are certain common threads that emerge from these comparisons of past societies that did or did not collapse and threatened societies today. One interesting common thread has to do with, in many cases, the rapidity of collapse after a society reaches its peak. There are many societies that don’t wind down gradually, but they build up — get richer and more powerful — and then within a short time, within a few decades after their peak, they collapse. For example, the classic lowland Maya of the Yucatan began to collapse in the early 800s — literally a few decades after the Maya were building their biggest monuments, and Maya population was greatest. Or again, the collapse of the Soviet Union took place within a couple of decades, maybe within a decade, of the time when the Soviet Union was at its greatest power. An analogue would be the growth of bacteria in a petri dish. These rapid collapses are especially likely where there’s a mismatch between available resources and resource consumption, or a mismatch between economic outlays and economic potential. In a petri dish, bacteria grow. Say they double every generation, and five generations before the end the petri dish is 15/16ths empty, and then the next generation’s 3/4ths empty, and the next generation half empty. Within one generation after the petri dish still being half empty, it is full. There’s no more food and the bacteria have collapsed. So, this is a frequent theme: societies collapse very soon after reaching their peak in power. What it means to put it mathematically is that, if you’re concerned about a society today, you should be looking not at the value of the mathematical function — the wealth itself — but you should be looking at the first derivative and the second derivatives of the function. That’s one general theme. A second general theme is that there are many, often subtle environmental factors that make some societies more fragile than others. Many of those factors are not well understood. For example, why is it that in the Pacific, of those hundreds of Pacific islands, why did Easter Island end up as the most devastating case of complete deforestation? It turns out that there were about nine different environmental factors — some, rather subtle ones — that were working against the Easter Islanders, and they involve fallout of volcanic tephra, latitude, rainfall. Perhaps the most subtle of them is that it turns out that a major input of nutrients which protects island environments in the Pacific is from the fallout of continental dust from central Asia. Easter, of all Pacific islands, has the least input of dust from Asia restoring the fertility of its soils. But that’s a factor that we didn’t even appreciate until 1999. So, some societies, for subtle environmental reasons, are more fragile than others. And then finally, another generalization. I’m now teaching a course at UCLA, to UCLA undergraduates, on these collapses of societies. What really bugs my UCLA undergraduate students is, how on earth did these societies not see what they were doing? How could the Easter Islanders have deforested their environment? What did they say when they were cutting down the last palm tree? Didn’t they see what they were doing? How could societies not perceive their impacts on the environments and stop in time? And I would expect that, if our human civilization carries on, then maybe in the next century people will be asking, why on earth did these people today in the year 2003 not see the obvious things that they were doing and take corrective action? It seems incredible in the past. In the future, it’ll seem incredible what we are doing today. And so I’ve been trying to develop a hierarchical set of considerations about why societies fail to solve their problems — why they fail to perceive the problems or, if they perceive them, why they fail to tackle them. Or, if they tackle them, why do they fail to succeed in solving them? I’ll just mention two generalizations in this area. One blueprint for trouble, making collapse likely, is where there is a conflict of interest between the short-term interest of the decision-making elites and the long-term interest of the society as a whole, especially if the elites are able to insulate themselves from the consequences of their actions. Where what’s good in the short run for the elite is bad for the society as a whole, there’s a real risk of the elite doing things that would bring the society down in the long run. For example, among the Greenland Norse — a competitive rank society — what the chiefs really wanted is more followers and more sheep and more resources to outcompete the neighboring chiefs. And that led the chiefs to do what’s called flogging the land: overstocking the land, forcing tenant farmers into dependency. And that made the chiefs powerful in the short run, but led to the society’s collapse in the long run. Those same issues of conflicts of interest are acute in the United States today. Especially because the decision makers in the United States are frequently able to insulate themselves from consequences by living in gated compounds, by drinking bottled water and so on. And within the last couple of years, it’s been obvious that the elite in the business world correctly perceive that they can advance their short-term interest by doing things that are good for them but bad for society as a whole, such as draining a few billion dollars out of Enron and other businesses. They are quite correct that these things are good for them in the short term, although bad for society in the long term. So, that’s one general conclusion about why societies make bad decisions: conflicts of interest. And the other generalization that I want to mention is that it’s particularly hard for a society to make quote-unquote good decisions when there is a conflict involving strongly held values that are good in many circumstances but are poor in other circumstances. For example, the Greenland Norse, in this difficult environment, were held together for four-and-a-half centuries by their shared commitment to religion, and by their strong social cohesion. But those two things — commitment to religion and strong social cohesion — also made it difficult for them to change at the end and to learn from the Inuit. Or today — Australia. One of the things that enabled Australia to survive in this remote outpost of European civilization for 250 years has been their British identity. But today, their commitment to a British identity is serving Australians poorly in their need to adapt to their situation in Asia. So it’s particularly difficult to change course when the things that get you in trouble are the things that are also the source of your strength. What’s going to be the outcome today? Well, all of us know the dozen sorts of ticking time bombs going on in the modern world, time bombs that have fuses of a few decades to — all of them, not more than 50 years, and any one of which can do us in; the time bombs of water, of soil, of climate change, invasive species, the photosynthetic ceiling, population problems, toxics, etc., etc. — listing about 12 of them. And while these time bombs — none of them has a fuse beyond 50 years, and most of them have fuses of a few decades — some of them, in some places, have much shorter fuses. At the rate at which we’re going now, the Philippines will lose all its accessible loggable forest within five years. And the Solomon Islands are only one year away from losing their loggable forest, which is their major export. And that’s going to be spectacular for the economy of the Solomons. People often ask me, Jared, what’s the most important thing that we need to do about the world’s environmental problems? And my answer is, the most important thing we need to do is to forget about there being any single thing that is the most important thing we need to do. Instead, there are a dozen things, any one of which could do us in. And we’ve got to get them all right, because if we solve 11, we fail to solve the 12th — we’re in trouble. For example, if we solve our problems of water and soil and population, but don’t solve our problems of toxics, then we are in trouble. The fact is that our present course is a non-sustainable course, which means, by definition, that it cannot be maintained. And the outcome is going to get resolved within a few decades. That means that those of us in this room who are less than 50 or 60 years old will see how these paradoxes are resolved, and those of us who are over the age of 60 may not see the resolution, but our children and grandchildren certainly will. The resolution is going to achieve either of two forms: either we will resolve these non-sustainable time-fuses in pleasant ways of our own choice by taking remedial action, or else these conflicts are going to get settled in unpleasant ways not of our choice — namely, by war, disease or starvation. But what’s for sure is that our non-sustainable course will get resolved in one way or another in a few decades. In other words, since the theme of this session is choices, we have a choice. Does that mean that we should get pessimistic and overwhelmed? I draw the reverse conclusion. The big problems facing the world today are not at all things beyond our control. Our biggest threat is not an asteroid about to crash into us, something we can do nothing about. Instead, all the major threats facing us today are problems entirely of our own making. And since we made the problems, we can also solve the problems. That then means that it’s entirely in our power to deal with these problems. In particular, what can all of us do? For those of you who are interested in these choices, there are lots of things you can do. There’s a lot that we don’t understand, and that we need to understand. And there’s a lot that we already do understand, but aren’t doing, and that we need to be doing. Thank you. (Applause)

100 thoughts on “Why societies collapse | Jared Diamond

  • They failed to learn from the Inuit. 4:46
    You know theres a bunch of people in the Americas who failed to learn from the Indigenous there too.

  • As a rate payer on this council, I want to know open we change our mayor ship in BRIMBANK?I can't remember when is the last time BRIMBANK got into election to elect mayor.Can some please from the mayor office please explain.

  • So your telling me that the vikings didnt know how to keep from soil erosion were thwy lived pruor ro grewnland…lmao…its cause of the climate …solar minimum at that time…lol greenland froze over period!! N if u think they all died n didnt go to warmer climate u r nuts…lolol.the inuit didnt have long boats to leave therw…lolol thats y they didnt leave…lmfao…the vikings simply got into there ships n went somewere else…like minisotta !!.😁😁

  • N ofcorse the inuit population thrived once the vikings were gone…lmao…this guy needs a hairbrush!!!!lmao

  • N if u think they cut down all there trees u r frickin insaine!! The statues r burried up to there necks in dirt!!!!! Can someone say catastrofic flood??!!!😂😂😂

  • His characterization of Montana needs some work. The mining pollution happened at a time before ecological awareness, which is no longer the case. Best practices have been instituted. He does not mention the income from tourism and education facilities. He also didn't mention the adverse influence of liberal political policies.

  • When your first point is "the environment", you know you've walked into a religious sermon and there's really no need to continue. What an utter waste of space.

  • This guy is a prime example of a educated guy who doesn't what he is talking about.You ever been to the thriving little metropolis of Billings, or the amazing city of Helena ? I dare say they are not about to collapse ,nore are they dependent on outsiders for their existence.Jared Diamond is a idiot .

  • Not only Enron. Even the toxc, wholly capitalistic Bankers were re-financed or bailed out by U.S government ; I was amazed at the numeber of homeless people in the US, the number who are sleeping in their cars etc. And nobody is bailing them out. The inequality in US society is increasing every decade. In the long run the discontent will explode. These kinds of longterm predictions
    do work. For exmpale, Charles Chaplin, the Nobel Price winner, read a book by a socialist in the 1920s . The book described how the wealth in America is cornered by rich and the boom times,
    the roaring twenties would not last. Charles Chaplin really understood the message , withdrew his money from the Banks and stored it at home for years and survived the crash magnificiently.
    Please note that with the little education he had, he was willing to buy and spend time over a book. Bodley Head has published his biography. See, he read and understood a social prediction, and
    the consequences of the prediction coming true, One wonders whether current American Elite or the " ruling powers" have as much sense. Is there intelligent life in Washington?

  • You can't have this talk without mentioning that jews compromise a nation's money supply and laden it with debt…..then, these empires collapse from within. Next up, USA.

  • Adaptability is inversely proportional to the level of specific adaptation. Once deeply adapted to a specific environmental and social state, a society can no longer effectively adapt to changes. It becomes brittle and breaks instead of bending.

  • All societies collapse for the same reason and only one reason. The BIBLE is entirely based on it if you believe in that sort of thing. All civilizations collapse because of PERSONAL GREED! No other reason Greed for more. More gold,more money,more power more of any material for self. This is what will destroy the USA sooner than later. It is what is destroying the Earths climate now. It is what was used to tempt Eve in the garden of Eden story. Greed for more knowledge. Greed for more land enabled genocide on the American Indian all approved by the those in power. It greed for more that will end man!

  • I think TED talks are really important, especially when the topics are pertinent to understanding the world. However, we need TED talks that are verifiably reliable and data driven…not just throwing around assumptions for effect.
    At 15:37, Diamond states: Solomon islands are one year away from logging collapse. So, of course, I research forest logging in the Solomon Islands…..guess what…..people are still talking about the "near collapse of forest logging" in Solomon islands in 2018. Oh, and the new prediction for logging collapse is 2036, apparently.

    Here is an article about that: https://psmag.com/environment/chinese-demand-is-decimating-solomon-islands-forests

    I don't like deforestation, climate change, or a polluted world period……..but I need TED to be better than fake stories.

  • Here’s the Rule.
    Monocultures are impossible to maintain over time.
    They simply burn themselves and their environments out of experience‼️

  • We were there last July and it was still so devastated. Saw a lot of progress but knew so much more to be done. Will be back in 3 weeks. So glad to see the progress. Really wasn't sure some of those Casinos would ever open again.

  • Donald Trump needs to watch this. Everyone who agrees with this, please send this to every Climate Change denier you know.

  • He mentions elites being immune from their own decisions.
    He talks of sheep and bottled water – ignoring mass immigration !
    To paraphrase your own words Jared – "can you see what you are doing" LOL

  • the west is dis-integrating. we are victims of own success, our laziness, our apathy and our greed. Customers blame the corporations for climate change, pollution and soil erosion but take no personal responsibility for any products they buy. They care not if their food source is sustainable, they care not if species go extinct, they care not that the oceans are being raped and pillaged, they care not that all the forests are being cut down for industrial farming, they care not about the waste created by all these animals being wasted into rivers and oceans, they care not about any other animal but themselves and their pets. grow up and take some responsibility for the planet your poor descendants have to try and survive on.

  • In short, Humans are greedy,(especially the ones in power), careless, power mad, and violent ,so planning for the future needs of the expanding population, may not go so well.

  • Oddly, he didn't say anything about acceptance of homosexuals and God's wrath causing the downfall of every extinct society, like all those expert commenters at yahoo news do..

  • Jared Diamond: Race doesn't exist, has no roots in science.
    Also Jared Diamond: DNA tests are helping (((us))) find all the genetic Jews!
    Jared Diamond is a snake oil salesman.

  • Karl Marx insisted that violence and revolution were necessary to achieve socialism and communism, because the rich and powerful won’t relinquish wealth and power without a fight. Given the oppressive and exploitative nature of capitalism, revolutions are inevitable. As Lenin pointed out, revolutions happen when two conditions are satisfied: (i) the ruling-class can no longer carry on ruling in the same old way, and (ii) the working class won't let them.

  • What's with all the weird "Jew" comments? Did Jews cause the collapse of the Viking Greenland, the Mayan and Easter Island civilizations? You guys must've studied anthropology at Trump University

  • I'm that idiot Jared refers to who does believe in a single factor explanation for the fall of civilisations, although I am only really familiar with our own. I do not dismiss a multiple factor explanation, it is just that I recognise ONE overarching factor, to which all the others are subordinate, which is this: the social sciences' failure to understand evolved human nature & thus human society, which is their supposed field of expertise, & whom others look to for guidance. Their understanding of society is pre-Darwinian, & thus on a par with medieval understanding of the heavens, which was pre-Copernican.

    Lacking a realistic understanding of ourselves and our society, there is no way for us to plot a course to a prosperous & sustainable future for all mankind. We are on course for civilisational collapse, with no idea how to avoid it. https://twitter.com/rogerahicks/status/1149587575423680517

  • So save you a 20 minute speech (regardless of what he said,) the reason why societies collapse is because of the mass immigration cult and lack of identity and the demonizing of patriots who point out the others and also the far left that silences freedom of speech and wants to destroy families. You shouldn't need immigrants and relying on them, you should love your own!

  • That’s why we are doing things like storming Area 51. Absolutely nothing has changed because the elites and the bureacracy are self destructive lacking oversight. The elites which have power don’t see the benefit of being pro nationalist in the sense of saving your society. Liberals follow them because the elites know how to make being anti nationalist seem moral. And the right is held together by outdated values such as blind capitalism. So simply rising up peacefully is the only way left for the actual people in the society to have an effect and time is of the essence. If it takes disclosure on UFOs to get people on the left and right to unite and solve other problems along the way then it’s a good thing.

  • How can someone so astute as to the nature of cause and effect in relation to enviromental and human generated factors in the history of humankind, be so unaware of the visual dissonance that his hair creates

  • They collapse because of immaculate negation and Google and AT&T and Facebook and Microsoft and the one percent. And because GOD DOESNT CARE ANY MORE https://youtu.be/MY8xuJ-mFio

  • There will be great rewards for those and bring those buildings down and put the blood of those people in the streets

  • I am not the tank in Tiananmen Square I am not the artillery I am not the fire I am not the explosion I am not the evil I am the humanity that courses through the veins of the one operating that machinery as well as the one standing in front of it and that one standing in front of it is the one that I need to speak with in person immediately as a symbolic measure to whoever in this world has that sort of courage within them

  • When the historically easily radicalized left becomes emboldened,….
    get the crazy people rounded up again..,,get them off of school boards, out of office, out of teaching jobs….Socialist Democrats are sick.

  • If you are concerned about food production and resource depletion, then study the Incan Empire. In that Empire the Inca's are not afraid of having many babies, they carry out careful colonization in areas to prevent overcrowding, their agricultural techniques and agro-industrial techniques are such that as their population grows their soil and water resources becomes even richer!

    And when they cultivate the forests as farm forest (called tree farms in today's world) their forests became even more biodiverse and even more productive. And their population density is so high that it frightened the Spanish Conquistadores who only won because of their superior weapons and armor. What the Inca has created is in effect an efficient and effective form of agricultural system that synergistically integrates and works with nature as they cultivate more land within their mountainous forests which we call as checkered plots complete with tree farms combined with alley cropping and inter-double cropping by leaving 1 plot of virgin forest untouched and using 1 plot of forest to be culled and trimmed and the lands cultivated intensively using a kind of multiple-cropping called inter-double cropping with multi-story tree crop farming of different crop heights and altitudes and double-inter cropped with fuel wood tree crops.

    And using densely inter-double planted trees of various uses in rows between multi-story tree crops and between them are the inter-double cropping cultivated grain plants and root crop plants densely planted together with protective annual Mexican marigolds to fight against plant diseases, plant pests, soil pests, parasites, making the soil more friable while planted together with nitrogen-fixing crops of all species and varieties at staggered consecutive schedules.

    The result is the more they cultivate their soil "PROPERLY" the richer their soil resources and water resources has become! Now we have modern plant botanical scientific knowledge and have access to all kinds of plants from all over the world to improve upon what the Inca has created. Vetiver grass, jiji-sao grass, clumping temperate bamboos, pesticidal plants, anti-blight plants (annual Mexican marigolds), perennial nitrogen-fixing living mulch ground cover, temperate coppicible and pollardable firewood tree crops, new temperate perennial crops, soil fertility improving trees, and new temperate naturopathic medicinal herbal pharmaceutical plants. In effect, what the Inca also has created can all be summed up as a form of AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM that works and cooperates and helps to further enrich nature while producing more agricultural food crops and non-food crops as well like organic medicines like oregano oil for one and many others as well.

    If you are concerned about food production and resource depletion, then study the Incan Empire. In that Empire the Inca's are not afraid of having many babies, they carry out careful colonization in areas to prevent overcrowding, their agricultural techniques and agro-industrial techniques are such that as their population grows their soil and water resources becomes even richer! And when they cultivate the forests as farm forest (called tree farms in today's world) their forests became even more biodiverse and even more productive. And their population density is so high that it frightened the Spanish Conquistadores who only won because of their superior weapons and armor. But one Spanish priest and chronicler was astonished at the splendor and fertility of both of it's people and their lands that he wrote down in his archives "IN THAT LAND, HUNGER DOES NOT EXIST" despite the high population density of it's people. I must also add that in that Empire, being a single and unmarried and childless bachelor or an old maid ARE CONSIDERED STATE OFFENSES! The Inca people are the only civilization that created a self-regenerating, self-regulating, and self-complimenting food chain eco-cycle agricultural food production system that made humans an important and natural component part of the natural ecosystem of nature in order to maintain it's increasing soil fertility and increasing water resource availability as their human population increases. AND IT IS THIS PARTICULAR INFORMATION THAT WAS KEPT AWAY FROM MOST OF THE PUBLIC'S HISTORY TEXTBOOKS! To sum it all up, the Incas has created an agriculture system that can all be summed up as a form of AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM that works and cooperates and helps to further enrich nature while producing more agricultural food crops and non-food crops as well like organic medicines like oregano oil for one and many others as well.

    This is similar to the Kaludsborg Industrial Ecosystem in the Netherlands that uses all the components of coal without any waste and without any pollution whatsoever for everything is close-loop and recycled and reused in that new industrial network of several systems combined together that uses each other's wastes as their primary raw material after processing it before using it. But one Spanish priest and chronicler was astonished at the splendor and fertility of both of it's people and their lands that he wrote down in his archives "IN THAT LAND, HUNGER DOES NOT EXIST" despite the high population density of it's people.

    I must also add that in that Empire, being a single and unmarried and childless bachelor or an old maid ARE CONSIDERED STATE OFFENSES! The Inca people are the only civilization that created a self-regenerating and self-complimenting food chain eco-cycle system that made humans an important component part of the natural ecosystem of nature in order to maintain it's increasing soil fertility and increasing water resource availability. AND IT IS THIS PARTICULAR INFORMATION THAT WAS KEPT AWAY FROM MOST OF THE PUBLIC'S HISTORY TEXTBOOKS!

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZyB47qGXoI CHECK THIS WEBSITE ADDRESS AND GO TO 19:23 to 21:20 IMMEDIATELY.
    A chinampa can produce up to 7 crops a year, a land based farm can only produce 1 or 2 at the most. In other literature books chinampas were re-introduced and their yields are a consistently 3 times higher than land based agriculture and that was at a time WHEN THEY ARE ONLY USING NATURAL GENETIC VARIETIES WHICH WE NOW CALL ORGANIC HEIRLOOM SEED VARIETIES, not hybrids and not GMO seeds, just NATURAL GENETIC VARIETIES now called as HEIRLOOM SEED VARIETIES.

    In my country Russia in my village of Kazan, a group of Siberian Russians cooperated to build a community indoor greenhouse chinampa and combined with soil-based vertical agriculture containing rock dust powders and powdered charcoal or activated carbon pre-mixed with organic grass-based and wood-based compost-based humus with a little water to activate the biogeochemical processes.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRHMGhta5wc Floating Gardens of Inle Lake, Burma. tymill. Published on Oct 18, 2013 Interesting how people have mastered the gardening of tomatoes and other fruits and veg on floating mats of grass that rise and fall on the lake. The little farms even have bamboo gates and hedges over the water. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGUMqBBbKqI&t=2066s 35:10 to 38:55 1988 Documentary about the upcoming Ice Age.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGUMqBBbKqI then click and go immediately 28:28 to 34:25 that states out that soil remineralization can literally bring dead soil back to life again (PROVIDED YOU USE THE RIGHT KIND OF ROCKS AND PULVERIZED-POWDERIZED THEM TO AS FINE AS BABY POWDER) and to 35:46 to 38:03 that states out this statement: Is that one thing that's absolutely clear and extraordinary is that when you put rock dust that whatever climate extremes there are the plants are the plants are very strong they are not affected by climate the way plants are normally are.

    Combine that with terra-preta yields can be increased by as much as 880%https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=terra-preta+increases+yields+by+880%25

    http://www.gmwatch.org/news/archive/2002/3397-yields-boosted-by-880-on-poor-soil-with-organic-methodsnon-ge-nematode-resistant-pepper-developed-in-us and people living such terra-preta lands people are healthier and not sickly.

    http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/research/terra%20preta/Flyer%20terra%20preta%20landuse%20strategy.pdf http://philipcoppens.com/terrapreta.html

    http://deltafarmpress.com/management/terra-preta-unearthing-agricultural-goldmine Basically a chinampa is the world's first aquaponic system but it is a passive self-sustaining system that uses soil for soil is a 10,000 year old time-tested and time-proven powerful self-regulating and self-balancing growing medium that allows farmers to make a mistake and still their crops will survive. It resists droughts and floodings, frosts and heat waves for the trees provide a kind of alley cropping that creates a micro-climate within the chinampa.

    An indoor chinampa inside a greenhouse will be the most productive farm with an all year round agricultural production output on a daily basis for the crops will be planted on a consecutive and staggered basis. Plus combining multiple-cropping, double-planting, inter-cropping, living mulch, anti-pesticidal plants, anti-blight plants, etc their yields will be staggering.

    Combine with rock dust powder remineralization and food grade activated charcoal powder or activated food grade carbon powder to turn the soil into a terra-preta soil will be of great tremendous help in ensuring greater crop yields. Coffee plants inter-planted with alley-cropping are virtually typhoon-proof.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRHMGhta5wc Floating Gardens of Inle Lake, Burma. tymill. Published on Oct 18, 2013 Interesting how people have mastered the gardening of tomatoes and other fruits and veg on floating mats of grass that rise and fall on the lake. The little farms even have bamboo gates and hedges over the water.

  • What's this blurred video?
    240p?
    Who made This Crappy video?
    The information is interesting, as long as you don't watch the video!
    Did you use a giant VHS Camera?
    Because this video needs to be cleaned up!
    ALOT!
    TELL ME A CHILD, RECORDED THIS!
    I'D BELIEVE YOU!

  • Society collapses when the perverts take charge..library hour with pedophiles…that kind of crap

  • The downfall of the USA will be peak oil. and peak natural gas. we are becoming so dependent on those 2 things. Patrolium based fertalizers pestasides herbasidez the whole petrochemical industry not just plastics but even the Asperin we take the nylon pants we ware the polyester carpit we walk on. we are swimming in oil sourced products. So once the cheap oil goes so goes Western society.

  • TED talks telling you your fate and you don't realise it is owned by those same elites you despise?
    Sad sheeple……
    Why do you think they put armed cops around Parliament?
    It wasn't for coloured terrorists with beards, it was to stop YOU when you rise up against them.
    ADVICE : When it does happen, ask those cops with the guns what they are going to do when their bullets runn out, then give them the option of putting the guns down and joining you.

  • TED talks telling you your fate and you don't realise it is owned by those same elites you despise?
    Sad sheeple……
    Why do you think they put armed cops around Parliament?
    It wasn't for coloured terrorists with beards, it was to stop YOU when you rise up against them.
    ADVICE : When it does happen, ask those cops with the guns what they are going to do when their bullets runn out, then give them the option of putting the guns down and joining you.

  • Good talk. As a demonstration of the short-term interests of the elites being in conflict with the long-term interests of everyone else, look no further than sinking cities like Miami, Jakarta and Bangkok. When you build heavy buildings on top of swampy land, block the floods bringing soil that in the past has replenished the land, and pump up the ground water, your city sinks. But the wealth of the elite owners/developers of property would suffer if people would stop building and/or abandon these cities, so everything continues along until the city is permanently flooded (collapse). The elites will do their best to divest themselves as short a period before collapse as they can.

  • The next collapse will be at a world level loss so horrific a lot of it from war and the earths ecosystems cannot support the populations of today. Basically those things that can survive in a desert what is what will be left. Chances are life would evolve again millions of years later. The time it takes for earth to heal itself. I'm quite sure there were societies that existed way long ago that even archaeology will never find but does have theories on. Even today science historians can't explain some modern time phenomena and people live in remote regions of the world are still unknown. The govt falsely tabulates data both intentionally and the idea of taking sample populations is very barbaric. Much of our educational systems are basing research on previous errors still kept on record. I know this much from an economic standpoint and even people's value systems are oblivious to the greater surrounding events the news will never be able to tell you even if it tried it's hardest to not let politics dicate that news

  • His five points are historically relevant, but not so much anymore currently, we have via modern technology developed such extraordinary highly yielding food production systems, we are extremely creative and flexible in thinking and acting if urgently required

  • Did this fool just say the Norse were inept when it came to living in cold conditions?

    This isn't even "how societies fail". This guy just described a colony surrounded by hostile natives and sparse trade with a friendly nation.

    Just off the top of my head that's the same conditions American colonials were in and yet…

    This might describe why that specific Norse village failed, but it's utility in being generalized to the architecture of societal collapse as an idea is pretty limited. I understand societal collapse can happen in a variety of ways. But there are commonalities, and being able to measure the relative danger or impact of one or more of these events over time is useful to help us identify which issues need the most attention.

    This wasn't terribly useful for that.

  • 15 years later… an eerie echo of how inequality between wealthier classes and workers in usa zeitgeist's…builds steam, like 1921 germany

  • Meanwhile, Alaska is on the verge of becoming a Toxic Waste Superfund Site. EPA restrictions removed what once protected what little bit of limited natural resources we have left. When the top 1% of the 1% ignorantly assume they can hide in their private bunkers, protected from the consequences of their selfish actions, here we are.

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